Browsing: polity

Indian Polity
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Indian Polity is one of the very important components in every competitive examination. The subject deals with the functioning of the state (government) in the country. This subject is a must for all categories of people to understand the legislative, executive and judicial systems in the country.Readers can download the each of the notes as PDF for free using the ‘print-pdf’ option The Indian Constitution is the supreme law of the land. All other laws are made by the legislatures…

Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law
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Article 21 in The Constitution Of India Protection of life and personal liberty:No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law As we have seen, the term “procedure established by law” is used directly in the Indian constitution. Due Process of Law has much wider significance, but it is not explicitly mentioned in Indian Constitution. The due process doctrine is followed in the United…

Cut Motions: Policy Cut, Economy Cut, and Token Cut
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After the budget is presented in Parliament and discussions over it are completed, the members get an opportunity to move cut motions to reduce the amount of demand. The members from particular parties or coalitions may bring their own cut motions. The members generally give notice of the Cut Motions for the reduction of the votable heads of expenditure of the Demands for Grants immediately after the Finance Minister or the Railway Minister as the case may be, has presented…

Difference between Full Budget and Vote on Account
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Confused if Finance Minister P Chidamabaram is presenting Union Budget, an Interim Budget or something else? And how can he do it since his government might be replaced by a new one in the next three-four months? Why will the new Union government follow the expenditure plan of its predecessor? There is a difference between a Union budget, an Interim Budget and a ‘Vote on Account’, the third being the smallest of the three. This is what Finance Minister P…

Budget Documents Made Simple: Key to Budget Documents.
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(A) ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT Under Article 112 of the Constitution, a statement of estimated receipts and expenditure of the Government of India has to be laid before Parliament in respect of every financial year which runs from 1st April to 31st March. Annual Financial Statement is the main Budget document and is commonly referred to as the Budget Statement. (B) DEMANDS FOR GRANTS The estimates of expenditure from the Consolidated Fund included in the Budget Statements and required to be…

Government Budgeting: Indian Budget for Beginners
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The term ‘Budget’ is not mentioned in Indian Constitution. The related term mentioned is ‘Annual Financial Statement’. In this post, we explain the basics of Indian Budget and Government Budgeting process for beginners What are the constitutional requirements which make Budget necessary? Article 265: provides that ‘no tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law’. [ie. Taxation needs approval of Parliament.] Article 266: provides that ‘no expenditure can be incurred except with the authorisation of the Legislature’…

Election to Rajya Sabha: The Procedure
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Most of us know how elections are conducted in Lok Sabha. But how is a candidate elected to Rajya Sabha? What is the election procedure of the upper house, Rajya Sabha, also known as the Council of States? Procedure for Rajya sabha elections are more complex when compared to Loksabha elections. A single directly elected House was considered inadequate to meet the challenges before free India by the Constituent Assembly.  A second chamber, known as the ‘Council of States’, therefore,…

Important Parliamentary Committees in Detail
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We have so far seen the list of Parliamentary Committee in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. We have also seen the difference between Joint Committees and Select Committees. In this article, let us explore the details of some of the important Parliamentary Committees like Committee on Estimates, Committee on Public Undertakings, Committee on Public Accounts etc. Important Committees which act as Parliament’s ‘Watch Dogs’ over the executive (Select and Joint) Committees on Subordinate Legislation Committee on Government Assurances Committee on Estimates (Select committee of…

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